Compare Dictionaries with a Value of Any type (Swift)

Comparing a Type of Any? No problem!

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Photo by Pisit Heng on Unsplash

Difficulty: Beginner | Easy | Normal | Challenging

Whilst going through Apple’s guide “Storing Keys in the Keychain” I noticed one thing.

The queries are of type [String: Any] , so I want to test the creation of the query.

I’ll need to test the keys and values of type String and Any are created correctly, respectively.

I’ll need to compare Any value types. :(


  • Be able to produce a “Hello, World!” iOS application (guide HERE)
  • Knowledge of Swift’s Equatable protocol (guide HERE)
  • Knowledge of Swift’s Hashable protocol (guide HERE)

Some knowledge of:

  • Value and reference types (guide HERE)


Any: An instance of any type, including function types

Dictionary: The association between keys and values (where all the keys are of the same type, and all values are of the same type)

Equatable: A protocol that can be applied to a type to allow value equality

Key-value pairs: A set of two linked data items, a unique identifier (key) and an item of data (value)

Comparing Dictionaries

Creating a test to test the elements of a Dictionary is ordinarily quite easy. We can simply use the equality operator (==) as long as the type is Equatable (that is, the value conforms to the equatable protocol)

A Simple Comparison

If you wish to compare a dictionary with [String: String] type (or any value types).

If the actual and expected dictionaries are different (for either the key or the value), the equality (==) will return false. If they are the same, the equality will return true.

The issue

Within guide there is a section to “Create a Query Dictionary” addquery is setup as follows:

so I wish to calculate if this is equal to another dictionary. However the type is [String: Any] and Any does not conform to Equatable.

That means even comparing the Dictionary to itelf:

addquery == addquery

will generate an error like the following

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Oh Dear!

The Solution

We can extend the equality operator and cast the Swift type Dictionary to the Objective-C type NSDictionary where the values are Hashable.

Now by using this function we can compare the dictionaries! Take a look at the full Playground as attached here


The Any type does not conform to theequality protocol. However, we shouldn’t let this stop us, and neither we will let it.

Making comparisons of Dictionary types is extremely important, and can even be used when we create some tests while coding in Swift.

Extend your knowledge

  • Here is Apple’s guide for implementing the Keychain HERE
  • Swift have documentation about Dictionaries HERE

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