Do enum Types Conform to Hashable in Swift?

Is autoconformance enough?

A video version of this article is available at

Photo by kaleb tapp on Unsplash

Items in a set or a dictionary need to conform to Hashable

Usually this means that we need to make sure our type conforms to Hashable. In this example, we are going to put a simple Animal struct into a set. If we do not declare conformance to Hashable Swift gives us a rather reassuring error:

however the compiler can give us automatic Hashaable conformance, we tell the compiler that we require Hashable conformance (as indeed we do, to place instances of the struct into the set). This looks like the following code snippet:

struct Animal: Hashable {
let animalName: String
let dog = Animal(animalName: "dog")
let cat = Animal(animalName: "cat")
let animalSet: Set<Animal> = [dog, cat]

Since the String property conforms to Hashable by default there is no more work to do (check out this article for the work that may need to be done for more complex types to conform to the Hashable protocol).

This is absolutely fine. But what about using an enum? We might want to do this to add types to a set which is, of course a slightly different situation. However, for the purposes of this article this will show the point:

enum Animal {
case dog
case cat
let animalSet: Set<Animal> = [.cat, .dog]

The difference here is that the enumeration ( enum) gains Hashable conformance automatically - you don't even need to declare that the enum conforms to Hashable! Awesome!

What about associated types?

We could add that into our enum, however we don't get the automatic conformance:

enum Animal {
case dog(breed: String)
case cat(breed: String)
let animalSet: Set<Animal> = [.cat(breed: “moggy”), .dog(breed: “lab”)]

Happily, since the associated value is (in this case) Hashable since they are simply a String we can (in this case) declare conformance to Hashable with the same ease as in the struct above:

enum Animal: Hashable {
case dog(breed: String)
case cat(breed: String)
let animalSet: Set<Animal> = [.cat(breed: "moggy"), .dog(breed: "lab")]


It is very tempting to use the compiler to overcome errors in your code, and this prevents you needing to think in order to solve code problems quickly. However, knowing what is happening when we get those Hashable errors and how we might solve them is a key to producing great code at speed.

Certainly we shouldn’t stop thinking about our code, and in the case of enum getting something "for free" does not mean that we shoudn't consider what is going on under the hood.

I hope this article has been of use to you.

If you’ve any questions, comments or suggestions please hit me up on Twitter

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