Equality in Swift

We’re all equal. Right?

Equals helps you to compare two (or more) values = and is no problem to most people coding in Swift. However, there is more to equality than just this.

Read on and learn about == and ===

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Photo by Tim Mossholder on Unsplash

Difficulty: Beginner | Easy | Normal | Challenging


  • Be able to produce a “Hello, World!” iOS application (guide HERE)
  • Some knowledge of value and reference types would be advantageous (guide HERE)
  • For later in the discussion knowledge of the equatable protocol is advantageous, although not required (guide HERE)


Assignment: Giving (setting) a variable a value

Equality: Numerically this is the relation between two operands (e.g 3=3 or 5<6; both of which would resolve to be true)

Identity: The relationship between two operands, that is they are identical or not and are the same instance.

Instance: An example or single occurrence of something

Operands: The value on which an operator is performed

Relational operator: An operator that tests the relation between two operands

Variable: A named value, that potentially can be changed as the program runs

The relationship between =, == and ===

Oh my! Those who have created programming languages have made this quite tricky indeed.

Allows us to create a calculation

var sum = 3
print (sum) // 3

in this case we have created a variable called sum and placed 3 into that variable.

In programming we often call this = assignment

Equality allows you to test if things are equal to each other, that is equality and tests if two things are (for want of a better word) equal.

Let us see some examples using Integer types:

3 == 3 // true
10 == 10 // true
2 == 7 // false

We will see slightly more complex examples later in this example.

We can also check that things are not equals by using ! to negate our operator

1 != 2 // true
7 != 7 // false
2 != 7 // true

This checks to see if two operands point to the same instance, that is, check that they are identical (no not, as the case maybe).

Because we are talking about instances comparing simple Integers will produce an error in Swift

let variableOne = 3
let variableTwo = 3
variableOne == variableTwo // true
variableOne === variableTwo // error

The error is:

Binary operator ‘===’ cannot be applied to two ‘Int’ operands

So at least this is clear; we can however make this comparison of Classes. I have had to set up an equality static function

class Person {
var name: String
init (name: String) {
self.name = name
static func == (lhs: Person, rhs: Person) -> Bool {
return las.name == rhs.name

We then set up Instances of these types

let dave = Person(name: "Dave")
let anne = Person(name: "Anne")

Now their names are different, so as you might have guessed:

anne === dave // this is false, different instances

and as before

anne == dave // this is false, as they are different

What if there are two Dave’s? Dave P and Dave?

let dave = Person(name: "Dave")
let daveP = Person(name: "Dave")
dave === daveP // this is false, different instances
dave == daveP // this is true, as the names are the same

Now as we are using reference so when we make a copy of the class, we are passing the reference around. Therefore the following makes sense (and, of course, is true):

let dave = Person(name: "Dave")
let daveF = dave
dave === daveF //true


That seemed reasonably tricky. Anyone who thought that equals just means equals will now know things can be a little but more tricky with =, == and === all in play.

Now pick wisely…!

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