What are Swift’s Keypaths?

They help with KVO and more!

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Difficulty: Beginner | Easy | Normal | Challenging
This article has been developed using Xcode 11.4.1, and Swift 5.2.2


You will be expected to be aware how to make a Single View Application, or a Playground to run Swift code


keypath: Read-only access to a property

writablekeypath: read-write access to a value-type property

referencewritablekeypath: read-write access to a reference-type property


uses in the assign function

which is the one that allows us to connect to elements, for example

That seems fine, but what are keypaths? How are they used, and what do they mean?

Could you make an article explaining this for me?

I don’t mind if I do!

What is a keypath?

A keypath provides read-only access to a property, whilst a writable keypath provides (well…) writable access to a property.

A keypath example

Perhaps the best way to describe this access is through an example, where we can set up a rather basic object.

we can then access the properties through or (where firstname and secondname are represented by a and age is represeted by a ).

The following keypath therefore returns a , and that can be printed out

Now even the property type can be stored

which means that you can potentially use the same property in multiple places, and storing it as a property itself means that it would only need to be stored in one place.

Nested properties

The following is an example of nested keypaths

KeyPath composition

Swift allows you to dynamically combine keypaths at runtime (of course the types need to be compatible).

KeyPaths as type-erased variants

You may wish to have a keypath that does not require the Value parameter

So both and can be stored with the same type: . The parameter has been type-erased.

KeyPaths of reference types

This shouldn’t be a too big surprise, but if you use a keypath on a reference type (for example a )

Are keypaths new?

Keypaths have been around for some time, they’re present in ! However, they were not type safe ( is actually a ).


If we change to have a static var.

As, well, keypaths cannot refer to static members! What a shame!


Want to use KVO in your code? You’re going to need to call a keypath when you use , and a sample implementation might look something like the following:

So consider yourself TOLD!


So, keypaths are actually useful in iOS development, being relevant for and SwiftUI as well as .

Do you want to buckle up and become familiar with this, or not? I'd say understanding what you need to do is important- and you can read up and on this HERE.

I hope that this article has helped you out in become more familar in this relatively new feature of Swift.

If you’ve any questions, comments or suggestions please hit me up on Twitter

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